Study Guide for the Final


STUDYGUIDE FOR 2ND HALF OF SEMESTER
HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (Return on Final Day)

1.   The chief reason given by teenagers for early sexual activity is
     A.    curiosity
     B.    social pressure
     C.    being in love
     D.    sexual desire

2.   Which of the following is not one of the most important factors in marital success?
     A.    A sense of commitment and obligation to the spouse
     B.    Age at marriage
     C.    How partners communicate, make decisions, and deal with conflict
     D.    The income of the family

3.   The "sandwich generation" refers to
     A.    elderly adults who cannot afford a wide variety of foods
     B.    grown children who are caught in the middle of divorcing parents' conflict
     C.    middle-aged people who want to appear young but are beginning to feel old
     D.    adults who are caring for children and elderly parents simultaneously

4.   The five-factor model of personality emphasizes
     A.    personality changes that occur during middle adulthood
     B.    five crises that adolescents and young adults experience which produce instability in personality
     C.    normative influences on adaptive mechanisms in mid-life
     D.    stability of personality characteristics over much of adult life

5.   A dual-earner couple tend to be happier in a relationship if
     A.    the partners' contributions to the relationship are about equal
     B.    the man contributes the most
     C.    the woman contributes the most
     D.    they do not measure their relative contributions to the relationship

6.   The most common living arrangement in the United States consists of
     A.    married couples with children
     B.    unmarried couples with no children
     C.    married couples with no children
     D.    unmarried couples with children

7.   Generalizing from the text, what might be an effective treatment for bulimia?
     A.    a drug that decreases serotonin levels in the brain
     B.    a drug that increases serotonin levels in the brain
     C.    a drug that decreases fat stores in the body
     D.    a drug that reduces motor activity

8.   People who do not find an outlet for generativity become all but which
     A.    self-absorbed
     B.    self-indulgent
     C.    self-depreciating
     D.    stagnant

9.   In Gusii society, transitions in social status depend on
     A.    spiritual powers
     B.    ability to reproduce
     C.    life events
     D.    age

10.  Most adult children today
     A.    do not provide care for aging parents who need it
     B.    plan ahead about how they will care for their parents
     C.    feel better about providing care if they do so because of a sense of attachment
     D.    feel better about providing care if they are doing it out of a sense of duty

11.  Diane is 13 years old, and is pondering her own talents, interests, and needs, as well as her place in society.  According to Erikson, this struggle represents the crisis of
     A.    autonomy versus shame and doubt
     B.    industry versus inferiority
     C.    identity versus identity confusion
     D.    intimacy versus isolation
     
12.  The typical anorexic
     A.    is an underachiever in school
     B.    is depressed
     C.    avoids thinking about food or handling it
     D.    realizes how abnormally thin she is but cannot help herself
     
13.  According to Erikson, middle-aged adults are involved in the crisis of
     A.    identity versus identity confusion
     B.    generativity versus stagnation
     C.    industry versus inferiority
     D.    intimacy versus isolation
     
14.  Which of the following is not a problem faced by grandparents raising their grandchildren?
     A.    Most states put pressure on the grandparents to assume permanent legal custody.
     B.    Many health insurance policies will not cover grandchildren.
     C.    Grandparents feel guilt and anger because their own children are not capable of raising the children.
     D.    They may have difficulty getting the children enrolled in school.
     
15.  According to the text, adolescents show all but which attitude toward their brothers and sisters?
     A.    intimacy
     B.    affection
     C.    admiration
     D.    hostility
     
16.  Generalizing from the research, which of the following young adults would probably be most readily accepted back into the "nest"?
     A.    Artie, who is in his thirties and chronically unemployed
     B.    Bridget, who is 21 and is job hunting after graduating from college
     C.    Cary, who is 27 and divorced
     D.    Delia, who is 32, has just been divorced for the second time, and has two children

17.  Adolescence
     A.    occurs in all cultures throughout the world
     B.    is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood
     C.    begins when young people reach sexual maturity
     D.    is genetically determined

18.  Which of the following is not one of the practical suggestions mentioned in the textbook that could help parents of older children and adolescents to reduce violence by their children?
     A.    limit and monitor television viewing
     B.    encourage participation in sports and other supervised after-school activities
     C.    store firearms unloaded and locked
     D.    leave children unsupervised after school

19.  Gay men who did not "come out" until midlife often go through a prolonged search for
     A.    relationship
     B.    acceptance
     C.    identity
     D.    all of the above

20.  If you were going to design a study on marital satisfaction during adulthood, which of the following would you do to make your study methodologically superior to most previous studies?
     A.    Perform the study in a cross-sectional rather than longitudinal fashion
     B.    Obtain information primarily from women, since they determine the quality of the marriage
     C.    Obtain data from divorced as well as married subjects
     D.    All of the above

21.  Which country in the industrialized world has the highest rates for sexually transmitted diseases?
     A.    Sweden
     B.    China
     C.    Germany
     D.    United States

22.  In comparison with the previous generation, women today tend to
     A.    have more children
     B.    have children later in life
     C.    be less emotionally involved with their children
     D.    have more regrets about having children

23.  Maturity and competence are associated with which of Marcia's states of ego development?
     A.    foreclosure
     B.    moratorium
     C.    identity achievement
     D.    identity diffusion

24.  A girl is most likely to feel negative about menstruation if
     A.    menarche comes late
     B.    she is unprepared for the physical changes involved
     C.    her family treats it as a rite of passage
     D.    her father and brothers discuss it with her

25.  Typically, adult children and their elderly parents
     A.    seldom see each other
     B.    generally get along rather poorly with each other
     C.    generally get along well with each other
     D.    live together

26.  The secular trend in the onset of puberty
     A.    is probably due to better health and nutrition
     B.    does not appear to have a genetic limit
     C.    is found in nonindustrialized countries
     D.    is so called because it seems to be linked with decreased influence of religion

27.  According to Erikson, the crucial task of this period is developing
     A.    a sense of personal efficiency
     B.    self identity
     C.    intimate relationships
     D.    generativity

28.  The supposedly stressful period during the early to middle forties which is precipitated by review and reevaluation of one's life is sometimes called the
     A.    menopause
     B.    climacteric
     C.    midlife crisis
     D.    crisis of industry versus inferiority

29.  Today, the timing-of-events model assumes that personality change in adulthood is shaped by
     A.    specific, age-related maturational processes that occur in a fairly predictable from one person to the next
     B.    crises that occur when people turn 30, then 40, then 50 years old
     C.    significant life events that occur at different times for different people
     D.    changes in reproductive capacity

30.  The most important time of the week for adolescents is
     A.    school nights
     B.    the weekend
     C.    the school day
     D.    all are important

31.  Maxine is pregnant and is worried about how she will care for a baby and continue to work.  This is an example of a(n) __________ event.
     A.    individual
     B.    cultural
     C.    nonnormative
     D.    history-graded

32.  Margaret Mead believed that adolescence is
     A.    invariably a time of storm and stress
     B.    invariably a serene, gradual transition
     C.    more stressful in cultures that make the transition gradually
     D.    less stressful in societies that change very little

33.  During the past century, the onset of puberty has been coming at an earlier age in the United States and in some other countries.  This is
     A.    called a secular trend
     B.    apparently related to a higher standard of living
     C.    now leveling off
     D.    all of the above

34.  If Pauline is a typical girl, she is likely to have her first sexual relationship at the age of
     A.    14
     B.    15
     C.    16
     D.    17

35.  Bart tends to worry about being liked, is very cautious in his actions, and feels most comfortable when he follows the rules.  According to research cited in the text, Bart is probably
     A.    mentally behind his peers
     B.    a late-maturing boy
     C.    an early-maturing boy
     D.    a preadolescent

36.  According to research described in the text, parents of high school students who earned the highest grades were likely to be
     A.    authoritarian
     B.    authoritative
     C.    permissive
     D.    inconsistent

37.  Which of the following statements about grandparenting is true?
     A.    African American self-ratings of grandparenting performance are lower than whites' self-ratings.
     B.    African American grandparents tend to be less involved with grandchildren than white grandparents.
     C.    White grandparents stress the importance of good manners and learning more than African American grandparents.
     D.    White grandparents spend less time with their grandchildren than African American grandparents.

38.  Adolescents whose mothers are employed tend to
     A.    resent the mother's absence
     B.    be better adjusted socially than other teenagers
     C.    spend more time reading because they are alone so much
     D.    watch less television

39.  Todd, age 18, feels that he can drink and drive safely but becomes angry at friends who drink and drive.  What term would Elkind use to explain this behavior?
     A.    imaginary audience
     B.    argumentativeness
     C.    apparent hypocrisy
     D.    personal fable

40.  According to the most recent surveys cited in the text, approximately __________ percent of adult males consider themselves homosexual.
     A.    three
     B.    eight
     C.    less than one
     D.    twelve

41.    According to the text, most siblings
     A.    remain emotionally close during middle adulthood
     B.    remain in touch, but become emotionally distant because of marriage
     C.    lose touch with one another during middle adulthood, but reestablish contact during late adulthood
     D.    fail to support one another when caring for elderly parents

42.  For white adolescent males, the number one killer is
     A.    homicide
     B.    suicide
     C.    accidents
     D.    cancer

43.  The intensity and importance of friendships, as well as time spent with friends, are probably greater in _______________ than at any other time in the life span.
     A.    young childhood
     B.    middle childhood
     C.    adolescence
     D.    young adulthood

44.  Generalizing from the text, it would be expected that teenagers will tend to be more influenced by peers than by parents with regard to
     A.    moral issues
     B.    educational and career choices
     C.    everyday social matters
     D.    all of the above

45.  According to research described in the text, formal operational thinking as assessed by the pendulum problem
     A.    is more common in males than females
     B.    reflect skills that were useful only in Piaget's time
     C.    is present in only about one-half to two-thirds of the adult population
     D.    is similar to Elkind's concept of egocentrism

46.  Remarriages tend to be __________ stable as/than first marriages.
     A.    more
     B.    less
     C.    as
     D.    none of the above

47.  Mark is an African American adolescent growing up in a predominantly black community.  Generalizing from research cited in the text, which of Marcia's identity statuses is Mark more likely to display than a white adolescent would?
     A.    identity achievement
     B.    foreclosure
     C.    identity diffusion
     D.    moratorium

48.  The precise time when puberty begins with a burst of hormonal activity seems to depend on
     A.    the neurological program in the brain
     B.    reaching a critical weight level
     C.    the age of the person
     D.    the personality of the person

49.  Which age group showed the most adaptability in the face of separation or divorce?
     A.    Adolescence
     B.    Young adulthood
     C.    Middle adulthood
     D.    Older adulthood

50.  It can be inferred from Erikson that achieving generativity is
     A.    not easy for childless people
     B.    actually easier for childless people than for parents
     C.    equally difficult for childless people and parents
     D.    unnecessary for childless people

51.  Ashley believes that abortion is wrong because her parents, friends, and church say so.  She has never really thought about the issue but has simply accepted this view as her own. According to Marcia, what is her identity status?
     A.    achievement
     B.    foreclosure
     C.    identity diffusion
     D.    moratorium

52.  Ron has internalized the moral standards of his parents and grandparents.  He is concerned with being considered a good son and maintaining the social order.  According to Kohlberg, Ron is in the stage of the
     A.    morality of conventional role conformity
     B.    morality of autonomous moral principles
     C.    preconventional morality
     D.    authoritarian morality

53.  Mildred is 55 years old, and is a top level executive in a computer graphics company.  She has recently begun to offer guidance and counsel to grace, a competent young woman who may one day rise to a high position in the company.  According to Levinson's theory, Mildred is serving as Grace's
     A.    confidant
     B.    career partner
     C.    mentor
     D.    transition facilitator

54.  In the United States, the median age for first marriage is
     A.    about 21 for males
     B.    about 20 for females
     C.    later than it was about 25 years ago
     D.    all of the above

55.  Studies of sexuality have been criticized on all but which of the following grounds?
     A.    Their samples are not representative.
     B.    Minors are sometimes encouraged to participate in the study without their parents' permission.
     C.    Some respondents may either conceal or exaggerate their sex lives.
     D.    There is no way to verify what people say about their sex lives.

56.  According to the text, approximately how many adolescents display classic "adolescent rebellion" while growing up?
     A.    virtually all adolescents display this tendency
     B.    about 75 percent of adolescents display this tendency
     C.    about 50 percent of adolescents display this tendency
     D.    about 20 percent of adolescents display this tendency

57.  Conflict between teenagers and their families and society is
     A.    called adolescent rebellion
     B.    found in fewer than 20 percent of all adolescent boys, according to studies
     C.    often temporary or superficial
     D.    all of the above

58.  Adolescence lasts about _______________ years.
     A.    5
     B.    10
     C.    15
     D.    20

59.  The principal sign of sexual maturity in males is
     A.    growth of the penis
     B.    production of sperm
     C.    ejaculation of semen
     D.    the adolescent growth spurt

60.  Approximately what percent of all teenage girls who become pregnant have abortions?
     A.    10
     B.    35
     C.    75
     D.    90

61.  According to Erikson, adolescents are in the crisis of
     A.    autonomy versus shame and doubt
     B.    industry versus inferiority
     C.    identity versus identity confusion
     D.    intimacy versus isolation

62.  According to Vaillant, people who are happy, are satisfied with their work, and have a sense of humor are using which adaptive mechanism?
     A.    Mature
     B.    Immature
     C.    Psychotic
     D.    Neurotic

63.  Which of the following is not a strong factor in getting adolescents to start smoking?
     A.    peer pressure
     B.    tobacco advertising
     C.    family influence
     D.    the taste of tobacco

64.  Which of the following statements regarding homosexual relationships is false?
     A.    Factors that influence satisfaction in a relationship are similar in homosexual and heterosexual couples.
     B.    Lesbians are more likely than gay men to have monogamous relationships.
     C.    In a couple, one partner usually assumes a masculine role and the other a feminine role.
     D.    Lesbian couples have less intimacy then heterosexual couples.

65.  In most states, adolescents can marry without parent's permission at age
     A.    16
     B.    17
     C.    18
     D.    21

66.  Seven out of ten people enter middle age with _______________ living parents and leave middle age with _______________.
     A.    one; none
     B.    two; none
     C.    two; one
     D.    one; one

67.  In couples who do not yet have children, husbands consider having children _________ important than wives, and after a child is born, fathers enjoy looking after them __________ than the mother.
     A.    less; more
     B.    less; less
     C.    more; less
     D.    more; less

68.  Danny does not know what he wants to do after high school and does not appear to worry about it.  According to Marcia, what is his identity status?
     A.    achievement
     B.    foreclosure
     C.    identity diffusion
     D.    moratorium

69.  Vaillant added a stage falling between Erikson's stages of intimacy and generativity called
     A.    age of identity
     B.    novice phase
     C.    becoming one's own man
     D.    career consolidation

70.  According to the _________ hypothesis, partners in a love relationship are quite similar to each other in most characteristics.
     A.    opposites attract
     B.    matching
     C.    similarity
     D.    likes attract

71.  Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg's description of moral development because
     A.    he focuses on Western European moral values
     B.    he proposes too many stages of development
     C.    he focuses on cognitive development rather than on emotional development
     D.    he focuses on values more important to males than females

72.  Menarche, or the first menstruation
     A.    occurs at the beginning of puberty
     B.    accompanies the onset of the adolescent growth spurt
     C.    is a sign of sexual maturity
     D.    means that conception is possible

73.  Secret gorging on food followed by vomiting, fasting, or purging with use of laxatives is characteristic of
     A.    anorexics
     B.    bulimics
     C.    obese teenagers
     D.    compulsive dieters

74.  Which girl would be most likely to experience early menarche?
     A.    a girl who is a competitive swimmer
     B.    a girl who is small for her age
     C.    a girl who has conflicts with her parents
     D.    a girl who does not have a close relationship with her father

75.  Elementary school children are likely to use any of the following drugs except
     A.    cigarettes
     B.    beer
     C.    marijuana
     D.    inhalants

76.  As demonstrated by sociometric studies, the greatest adjustment problems in schools were experienced by _______________ classmates.
     A.    popular
     B.    rejected
     C.    neglected
     D.    controversial

77.  Neugarten calls the shift in middle age toward concern with the inner self
     A.    androgyny
     B.    interiority
     C.    generativity
     D.    union of opposites

78.  Some research has found gender differences in moral judgments in early adolescence, with girls scoring _______________ than boys
     A.    higher
     B.    lower
     C.    more abstractly
     D.    more concretely

79.  Strategies for building a blended family include all but
     A.    have realistic expectations
     B.    recognize divided loyalties
     C.    develop new customs and relationships within the stepfamily
     D.    discourage the children from having contact with the former spouse

80.  Which of the following would be most likely to care for an ill elderly person?
     A.    Middle-aged daughter
     B.    Young adult daughter
     C.    Middle-aged son
     D.    Young adult son

81.  According to Kohlberg's theory of moral development,
     A.    moral development should be complete by adolescence
     B.    the conclusions people reach in response to moral dilemmas indicate their level of moral development
     C.    advanced cognitive development must exist if advanced moral development is to take place
     D.    advanced cognitive development guarantees advanced moral development

82.  A young woman has passes through adolescence without developing a strong sense of personal identity.  According to Erikson, what difficulty will she experience during young adulthood?
     A.    She will lack competitiveness
     B.    She will have problems with intimacy
     C.    She will become sexually promiscuous
     D.    She will fail to develop "the dream"

83.    Divorce is initiated more often
     A.    by men than by women
     B.    by women than by men
     C.    in times of economic hardship than in times of prosperity
     D.    none of the above

84.    Nicole's family is poor, and they live in a disadvantaged neighborhood.  Nevertheless, she does well in school because her parents are supportive and she receives help from community resources.  According to the text, Nicole has access to
     A.    authoritarian parenting
     B.    an imaginary audience
     C.    social capital
     D.    welfare programs

85.    As adolescents move into the stage of formal operations where they develop the capacity for abstract thought, they are able to do all but which one?
     A.    reason abstractly
     B.    make sophisticated, moral judgments
     C.    plan realistically for the future
     D.    consistently make wise choices

86.    Which of the following statements about middle-aged people's relationships with their parents is true?
     A.    They usually cannot view their parents as objectively as they used to.
     B.    There is typically a strong bond between them and their parents.
     C.    Ties with parents tend to be static; the relationship stops changing after children reach adulthood.
     D.    None of the above

87.    Secondary sex characteristics include all but which of the following?
     A.    pubic hair
     B.    nipple enlargement
     C.    prostate gland
     D.    changes in skin and voice

88.    According to Erikson, the virtue that develops during young adulthood is
     A.    hope
     B.    trust
     C.    love
     D.    competence

89.    Divorce has increased for all but which of the following reasons?
     A.    Women tend to be less financially dependent on their husbands.
     B.    Marriage counseling is generally ineffective.
     C.    Less social stigma is attached to divorce.
     D.    There are fewer legal obstacles to divorce.

90.    Historically and across cultures, the most common way of getting a mate has been
     A.    arrangement by a third party, such as parents or a professional matchmaker
     B.    free choice of mates on the basis of love
     C.    the dating and courtship process
     D.    falling in love and subsequent marriage

91.    Denise has smoked marijuana heavily for several years.  Which of the following problems is she not likely to experience?
     A.    impaired memory and learning
     B.    heart and lung problems
     C.    nutritional deficiencies
     D.    hyperactivity

92.    A longitudinal study of juvenile offenders found that
     A.    most of them outgrow their delinquent tendencies
     B.    most of them become hard-core criminals
     C.    it is fairly predictable which ones will commit crimes as adults
     D.    most of those who "go straight" do so for fear of getting caught

93.    Characteristics typical of high school dropouts include all but which of the following?
     A.    low socioeconomic status
     B.    being in a large, single-parent family
     C.    having repeated a grade in elementary school
     D.    taking a heavy load of courses in high school

94.    The average marriage in the United States lasts __________ years.
     A.    5
     B.    6
     C.    7
     D.    8

95.    Frannie and Lanny have been dating for two years, and Lanny has always assumed that they will eventually marry.  Then Lanny finds out that Frannie wants to date other people.  Lanny thinks that maybe it is his fault that Frannie wants to see other people, and if he pays attention to her, she will come back to him.  According to the text, Lanny is engaging in the Piagetian process of
     A.    accommodation
     B.    schema shifting
     C.    postformal operations
     D.    assimilation

96.    Obesity in adolescence
     A.    affects about 1 out of 3 young people
     B.    has declined since the mid-1960s because young people have become more health-conscious
     C.    is associated with high risk of anorexia in adulthood
     D.    usually continues in later life

97.    Lydia solves a chemistry problem by systematically testing several hypotheses.  She is at which stage of cognitive development according to Piaget?
     A.    sensorimotor
     B.    preoperational
     C.    formal operations
     D.    concrete operations

98.    Occurrences that people expect are called __________ events.
     A.    normative life
     B.    nonnormative life
     C.    individual
     D.    cultural

99.    Which kind of student would benefit most from the educational practice of tracking?
     A.    a low ability student
     B.    a student with average academic ability
     C.    a talented and gifted student
     D.    none of the above; no one benefits from this practice

100.    Adolescents who are sleep-deprived tend to do/be all but which of the following?
     A.    chronically sleepy in the daytime
     B.    show symptoms of depression
     C.    perform poorly in school
     D.    make up for the loss of sleep on the weekends

101.    Which of the following statements about friendships in adolescence is true?
     A.    Boys' friendships are rarely as close as girls' friendships.
     B.    Girls tend to count more people as friends than boys do.
     C.    Friendship decreases in importance during adolescence.
     D.    Girl's friendships are not very intimate.

102.    According to the timing-of-events model,
     A.    personality development is influenced primarily by age
     B.    personality development is influenced less by age than by what events people experience and when these events occur
     C.    personality development is influenced equally by age and by specific events
     D.    it is impossible to distinguish the effects of age on personality development from the effects of specific events

103.    Most vocational counseling in high schools is oriented toward
     A.    college-bound students
     B.    non-college-bound students
     C.    community college students
     D.    technical college students

104.    Troy is 22 years old, and has just gotten a job as a bank teller.  Troy envisions himself as eventually becoming the president of the bank.  According to Levinson's view of adult development, Troy is expressing
     A.    neurotic thinking
     B.    the "dream"
     C.    overcompensation
     D.    the need for a mentor

105.    According to research, which of the following is common in midlife?
     A.    Men become more nurturant
     B.    Women become less assertive and less achievement-oriented
     C.    Both men and women tend to become less introspective
     D.    Basic temperament tends to change

106.    After completion of treatment, most anorexics
     A.    appear to be fully cured
     B.    still see themselves as fat
     C.    have stopped gaining weight
     D.    have overcome their depression but have not resumed menstruating

107.    Herb, who is 25, has just married.  If his marriage is typical, when might he expect is to be happiest?
     A.    When he and his wife are most involved with child rearing and careers
     B.    During retirement
     C.    Right now, and again in the first part of late adulthood
     D.    He cannot make any prediction, since marital happiness does not seem to exhibit any pattern related to time

108.    A man in his late thirties who wants to break away from authority and do things independently would be at which of Levinson's stages?
     A.    Forming a "dream"
     B.    Entry life structure
     C.    "Settling down"
     D.    "Becoming one's own man"

109.    Genital herpes is
     A.    incurable
     B.    only mildly contagious
     C.    associated with increased incidence of testicular cancer
     D.    curable by injection of antiviral drugs

110.    Most pregnant teenagers are likely to have
     A.    few complications during pregnancy since they are young and strong
     B.    relatively large babies
     C.    greater medical risks than women in their twenties, regardless of prenatal care
     D.    better outcomes than any age group, with good medical care

111.    Generalizing from the text, it could be concluded that parents, especially fathers, affect their children's educational achievement most by
     A.    becoming involved in their children's schooling
     B.    making sure their children don't have to work
     C.    providing a car for their children
     D.    putting extreme pressure on children to have high achievement

112.    The most common eating disorder is
     A.    anorexia
     B.    obesity
     C.    bulimia
     D.    addiction to junk food

113.    All but which of the following describes couples who cohabitate or live together before marriage?
     A.    They have unhappier marriages
     B.    They have greater risk of divorce
     C.    They have better marriages later for having lived together before marriage
     D.    They have more risk of domestic violence and physical and sexual abuse of children

114.    Which of the following statements about gender as a factor in occupational choice is true?
     A.    Gender-typing in occupational choice has broken down to such an extent that gender is no longer a significant influence.
     B.    Although gender-typing in occupational choice has broken down considerably, some counselors still steer boys and girls to gender-typed careers.
     C.    Recent studies have found increasingly significant gender differences in mathematical and verbal abilities.
     D.    Fewer boys than girls take physics and computer science.

115.    Which of the following is not a gateway drug?
     A.    alcohol
     B.    marijuana
     C.    tobacco
     D.    cocaine

116.    Teenagers are likely to be influenced to delay sexual activity by
     A.    parents who talk with t hem about sex from an early age
     B.    community programs that help them withstand peer pressure
     C.    peers who counsel self-restraint
     D.    any of the above

117.    Jill, age 17, and her middle-aged parents have constant conflict.  Which of the following would probably not underlie this conflict?
     A.    Jill is not the daughter her parents dreamed of.
     B.    Jill's parents envy her because she is young and on the brink of life.
     C.    Jill is experiencing a strong need to break away.
     D.    Jill is jealous of her parents' accomplishments.

118.    When 13-year-old Ted comes out of the locker room in his gym shorts, he hears some girls laughing nearby and assumes they are laughing at the way his legs look.  According to Elkind, Ted's thinking reflects the operation of
     A.    an imaginary audience
     B.    the personal fable
     C.    indecisiveness
     D.    transference

119.    Men who abuse their spouses are likely to have all but which of the following characteristics?
     A.    fathers who beat their mothers
     B.    alcohol problems
     C.    intense shame and self-blame
     D.    low income

120.    Which of the following tend to be healthiest and live longest?
     A.    Married people
     B.    Never-married people
     C.    Widows and widowers
     D.    People who are divorced or separated

121.    According to Gilligan, women define their identity in terms of
     A.    achievement
     B.    competition
     C.    independence from parents
     D.    personal relationships

122.    The return of young adults to their parents' home has increased since the 1970s, most probably because of a(n)
     A.    financial problems
     B.    increase in the divorce rate
     C.    increase in unwed parenthood
     D.    all of the above

123.    Which of the following is not a recommended way to cope with stepparenting?
     A.    Try to make the stepfamily as much like a biological family as possible
     B.    Seek social supports
     C.    Be sensitive to children's fears and resentments
     D.    Maintain a courteous relationship with the former spouse

124.    Bill, age 30, is searching for the right woman to share his life and future.  He would be at Erikson's stage of
     A.    identity versus identity confusion
     B.    industry versus inferiority
     C.    intimacy versus isolation
     D.    initiative versus guilt

125.    Esmeralda and Quasimodo have recently divorced.  Which of the following will help them in adjusting emotionally to the divorce?
     A.    Detachment from the former spouse
     B.    Avoiding friends who will want to talk about the divorce
     C.    Refrain from entering another relationship for at least several years
     D.    All of the above

126.    The women in Helson's study of Mills College graduates found which decade of life to be filled with the greatest turmoil?
     A.    20s
     B.    30s
     C.    40s
     D.    50s

127.    What proportion of dependent older people who need care are in institutions?
     A.    One out of five
     B.    Two out of five
     C.    Three out of five
     D.    Four out of five

128.    Which does not describe girls between the ages of 11 and 13.
     A.    taller
     B.    smarter
     C.    heavier
     D.    stronger

129.    Attitudes towards premarital sex among young adults in the United States has changed dramatically.  The proportion of people who disapproved of sex before marriage has
     A.    increased
     B.    decreased
     C.    stayed the same
     D.    decreased by about 50 percent

130.    Presently about _______________ percent of all Americans over age 25 have earned high school diplomas.
     A.    93
     B.    83
     C.    54
     D.    49

131.    What is the most frequent grandparent-grandchild activity?
     A.    Give child money
     B.    Watch TV with child
     C.    Joke or kid with child
     D.    Talk to child about when you were growing up

132.    Which of the following is not a common mineral deficiency of adolescents?
     A.    calcium
     B.    zinc
     C.    iron
     D.    copper

133.    According to a study cited in the text, what proportion of high school seniors admit to having been drunk at least once during the past month?
     A.    one-fifth
     B.    one-fourth
     C.    one-third
     D.    one-half

134.    Cohabitation
     A.    is declining
     B.    has increased dramatically since 1970
     C.    is usually considered a "trial marriage"
     D.    seems to improve the chances of successful marriage

135.    Girls tend to _______________ maturing earlier than their peers.
     A.    not like
     B.    like
     C.    resent
     D.    be proud of

136.    What percent of adolescents are projected to develop a STD before high school graduation?
     A.    15
     B.    20
     C.    25
     D.    30

137.    With regard to age-consciousness, Americans today
     A.    show more consensus than people in the 1950s about the "right time" for certain life events
     B.    show less consensus than people in the 1950s about the "right time" for certain life events
     C.    do not seem to differ from people in the 1950s regarding the "right time" for certain life events
     D.    no longer have societal expectations about appropriate ages for life events

138.    According to Beall and Sternberg, people in different cultures define love differently.  These investigators say that love is a __________, a concept people create out of their culturally influenced perceptions of reality.
     A.    social invention
     B.    dangerous distraction
     C.    social construction
     D.    social role

139.    Jenny's breasts are beginning to develop.  This change is brought about by the secretion of _______________ by the _______________.
     A.    estrogen; testes
     B.    androgens; ovaries
     C.    estrogen; ovaries
     D.    androgens; testes

140.    The growth spurt in girls usually begins at about the age of
     A.    9
     B.    10
     C.    11
     D.    12

141.    Sue is 49 and has a 69-year-old mother.  It is probable that she
     A.    rarely sees or talks to her mother
     B.    sees or talks to her mother frequently
     C.    lives with her mother
     D.    has a great deal of conflict with her mother

142.    According to one study of young adults, "best friends" see their relationship as different from a romantic one in that there is more
     A.    enjoyment of each other's company
     B.    self-sacrifice
     C.    mutual acceptance
     D.    stability

143.    Adolescents living with two biological or adoptive parents are _______________ likely than adolescents living in other family situations to use alcohol, cigarettes, or illegal drugs.
     A.    less
     B.    not as
     C.    more
     D.    these are unrelated

144.    The multigeneration kinship structure that includes children, parents, grandparents, and sometimes great-grandparents is the
     A.    extended family
     B.    nuclear family
     C.    layered family
     D.    assimilated family

145.    Parents of young adults who return to the nest may
     A.    clash with their children over lifestyles
     B.    complain of strains on their marriage
     C.    feel deprived of privacy and freedom
     D.    all of the above

146.    Which of the following is true of stepgrandparents?
     A.    They may have difficulty establishing close relationships with stepgrandchildren.
     B.    They may help strengthen the relationship between stepchild and stepparent.
     C.    They offer expanded opportunities for love and nurturing of the children.
     D.    all of the above

147.    Dean is at Levinson's age-30 transition.  Which of the following would he be most likely to do?
     A.    Form a "dream"
     B.    "become his own man"
     C.    Acquire a mentor
     D.    Reexamine his entry life structure

148.    Edna and Roderick have been married for 25 years.  They have built-up their financial resources and their emotional bond has grown over the years.  According to the text, Edna and Roderick have considerable
     A.    marital capital
     B.    marital mutuality
     C.    marital scaffolding
     D.    marital assimilation

149.    The frequency of conflict between adolescents and their parents increases during
     A.    early adolescence
     B.    middle adolescence
     C.    late adolescence
     D.    none of the above; discord is fairly constant throughout adolescence

150.    In the United States entry from adolescence into adulthood occurs
     A.    at a set time fixed by law
     B.    earlier than in previous centuries because of the "hurried child" phenomenon
     C.    later than in previous centuries because of the secular trend
     D.    at varying times, depending on what definition of adulthood is used

151.    What year did the psychiatric profession stop classifying homosexuality as a mental disorder?
     A.    1993
     B.    1994
     C.    1995
     D.    1996

152.    A 38-year-old man is in a low-paying, low status job, and has few friends.  However, when speaking to a new acquaintance, he says that he makes more money than he knows what to do with, and has so many friends that he has little time for himself.  According to Vaillant's perspective, this man exhibits a(n) __________ mechanism of adaptation to life.
     A.    neurotic
     B.    immature
     C.    normative
     D.    psychotic

153.    Shonda, age 17, works for a fast-food chain.  Her work experience is probably
     A.    helping her learn important skills
     B.    impairing her performance in school
     C.    making her feel closer to her parents because she has adult-like responsibilities
     D.    enabling her to be independent in making financial decisions

154.    The first African American in the 20th century to play major league baseball was
     A.    Ted Williams
     B.    Larry Doby
     C.    Jackie Robinson
     D.    Babe Ruth

155.    Early childhood interventions that have achieved impressive long-term results include all but which of the following?
     A.    Syracuse Family Development Research Project
     B.    Yale Child Welfare Project
     C.    Houston Parent Child Development Center
     D.    New York Longitudinal Study

156.    With regard to vocational choices, teenagers often
     A.    gather too much information about the occupations of their choice
     B.    are unaware of the amount of education required for their chosen occupations
     C.    are forced into certain occupations by relatives
     D.    don't have enough information about different jobs

157.    The best safeguard for sexually active teens is the regular use of
     A.    jellies or creams
     B.    condoms
     C.    morning after pills
     D.    birth control pills

158.    The parents of adolescent children are usually
     A.    young adults
     B.    middle age adults
     C.    older-age adults
     D.    none of the above

159.    In which year out of the last 25 did drug use among adolescents reach its lowest point?
     A.    1982
     B.    1988
     C.    1992
     D.    1998

160.    According to Erikson, cliquishness and intolerence of differences in adolescence are
     A.    personality problems
     B.    defenses against identity confusion
     C.    a form of adolescent rebellion
     D.    due to adolescent egocentrism

161.    What is the major factor that has a negative effect on many teenagers living in single parent home?
     A.    Low self-esteem
     B.    exposure to the divorced parents' conflict
     C.    lack of contact with the father
     D.    poverty

162.    A study based on Erikson's concept of identity found that a group of women who had achieved identity after going through a "crisis" were all but which of the following?
     A.    Most satisfied and psychologically healthy
     B.    Felt the most in control of their lives
     C.    Expressed the greatest degree of generativity
     D.    Unsatisfied with their identity

163.    At about what age would you expect an average American boy to reach puberty?
     A.    8
     B.    10
     C.    12
     D.    14

164.    Eleanor, age 16, has her first sexual experience with her boyfriend, Sam.  If she is typical, she has probably
     A.    visited her doctor
     B.    obtained information about contraceptives
     C.    obtained information about STDs
     D.    felt strong social pressure to have sex

165.    Generalizing from the text, if you could choose the parents of your children's friends, you would want them to be
     A.    affluent
     B.    located nearby
     C.    authoritative
     D.    about the same age as you are

166.    The process by which middle-aged children learn to balance love and duty to their parents with autonomy within a two-way relationship is called
     A.    filial maturity
     B.    filial crisis
     C.    filial responsibility
     D.    all of these

167.    Which of the following is not a valid criticism of the concept of the midlife crisis?
     A.    This sort of transition is not necessarily limited to the middle years.
     B.    It appears to be more related to life events, circumstances, and personality than to age.
     C.    The transition, though potentially stressful, does not necessarily take on crisis proportions.
     D.    Midlife stress is limited chiefly to professional men.

168.    When adolescents die, it is usually not from which one of the following?
     A.    cancer
     B.    accidents
     C.    homicide
     D.    suicide

169.    What proportion of middle age caregivers have had to quit their jobs to care for a dependent parent?
     A.    One-fifth
     B.    One-fourth
     C.    One-third
     D.    One-half

170.    Relationships between middle-aged adults and their parents are usually characterized by
     A.    resentment
     B.    affection
     C.    conflict
     D.    dependency

171.    According to a study cited in the text, men with smaller social networks were more likely to die during the next four years of all but which of the following?
     A.    Cardiovascular disease
     B.    Cancer
     C.    Accidents
     D.    Suicide

172.    The longest-lasting relationship in most people's lives is with a
     A.    parent
     B.    spouse
     C.    sibling
     D.    child

173.    The anatomical structures that differentiate males from females are the
     A.    primary gender structures
     B.    gonads
     C.    primary sex characteristics
     D.    secondary sex characteristics

174.    Which of the following is not one of the characteristics that men look for in women?
     A.    Young
     B.    Attractive
     C.    Strong
     D.    Healthy

175.    During which period of development might exposure to female levels of sex hormones lead to a homosexual orientation in males?
     A.    during the middle gestation period
     B.    during the first week after conception
     C.    during the first few months of infancy
     D.    during the onset of puberty

176.    According to Erikson's theory,
     A.    males develop identity and intimacy at the same time
     B.    females develop identity first, and intimacy later
     C.    females develop intimacy through identification with the mother
     D.    male identity development is the norm

177.    Which of the following factors would probably be the best predictor of juvenile delinquency?
     A.    low-socioeconomic status
     B.    living with a single parent
     C.    poor school achievement
     D.    lying or stealing

178.    Divorce is most likely to occur
     A.    during the first 6 months of a marriage
     B.    during the first 10 years of a marriage
     C.    after the first 12 years of marriage
     D.    when both partners experience a midlife crisis at the same time

179.    According to Jung, during the midlife transition men and women
     A.    turn inward to express previously suppressed aspects of personality
     B.    concentrate on obligations to family and society
     C.    become less self-centered and more empathic
     D.    do not change significantly, since personality is set in childhood

180.    According to the textbook, which of the following is not a pressing issue or option in the development of an adolescent's sexual orientation?
     A.    heterosexual
     B.    homosexual
     C.    bisexual
     D.    non-sexual

181.    Which group engages in the highest level of sexual activity?
     A.    Single adults
     B.    Married couples
     C.    Cohabiting couples
     D.    No difference in frequency

182.    What does recent research suggest about the personal fable concept?
     A.    Girls are more likely to exhibit this pattern of thinking than boys.
     B.    African American teenagers are less prone to the personal fable than white teenagers.
     C.    This pattern of thinking seems to be inherited genetically and to run in families.
     D.    Most adults show this pattern of thinking as do adolescents.

183.    During Levinson's early-adulthood transition, people
     A.    remain in their parents' home
     B.    depend financially on their parents
     C.    depend emotionally on their parents
     D.    none of the above

184.    Currently, developmentalists who ascribe to the normative-crisis model believe that people
     A.    experience no further development after adolescence
     B.    continue to develop through their thirties, but undergo only minimal changes thereafter
     C.    probably develop very little after age 50
     D.    continue to develop throughout life

185.    According to Elkind, adolescents find fault with their parents because
     A.    their cognitive development allows them to think about ideals, and they see how their parents fall short
     B.    they need to separate emotionally from their parents in order to leave home
     C.    they are too self-centered to recognize their parents' good qualities
     D.    they need to rebel against parental authority

186.    James Marcia identifies four identity states or statuses according to the presence or absence of
     A.    crisis and commitment
     B.    foreclosure and moratorium
     C.    crisis and foreclosure
     D.    moratorium and commitment

187.    Which of the following is the least important factor in forming friendships in middle age?
     A.    Age
     B.    Length of marriage
     C.    Ages of children
     D.    Occupational status

188.    What model sees the developmental sequence as being punctuated by unexpected events?
     A.    Normative-crisis
     B.    Normative age-graded
     C.    Normative history-graded
     D.    timing-of-events

189.    When a 16-year-old girl is asked why she has sex without using birth control, she replies, "Well, it's not that likely to happen to me, and I'm too busy to get pregnant right now."  Generalizing from the text, this girl's thinking reflects the
     A.    personal fable
     B.    formal operation stage
     C.    foreclosure period of adolescence
     D.    assumption of invulnerability

190.    Erikson holds that adolescence provides a psychosocial moratorium, or "time out" period, which
     A.    allows adolescents to regress into childishness
     B.    allows adolescents time to search for commitment
     C.    often adds identity confusion
     D.    can precipitate an identity crisis

191.    Teenagers generally get most of their information about sex from
     A.    parents
     B.    media
     C.    friends
     D.    all of these

192.    Generalizing from the text, how might schools inadvertently reinforce delinquents' involvement with antisocial peer groups?
     A.    grouping low-achieving students together
     B.    putting low-achieving students in classes with regular students where they are sure to fail
     C.    encouraging low-achieving students to work so they will have a job should they drop out
     D.    allowing delinquents to participate in sports

193.    The onset of the hormonal changes that cause puberty is triggered by a signal from the
     A.    pituitary gland
     B.    adrenal gland
     C.    thyroid gland
     D.    lacrimal gland

194.    When the last child leaves home, which of the following parents would be most likely to find the transition difficult?
     A.    Mrs. A., who is returning to her business career
     B.    Mr. B., who has been more involved with his profession than with his family
     C.    Mr. and Mrs. C., whose children were troublesome as adolescents
     D.    Mr. and Mrs. D., who frequently clashed over child-rearing issues during their children's adolescence

195.    Recent research on the effect of maternal employment on adolescents' attitudes toward gender roles suggests that
     A.    Adolescent sons of working mothers have less stereotyped views of the female role
     B.    Adolescent daughters of working mothers have higher career aspirations
     C.    the mother's work status is the most important factor in shaping children's attitudes toward women's roles
     D.    the effect of the mother's work status depends chiefly on her role satisfaction and the warmth of the parental relationship

196.    Which model of personality development assumes the least amount of personality change in adulthood?
     A.    Trait model
     B.    Humanistic model
     C.    Timing-of-events model
     D.    Normative-crisis model

197.    The most common curable STD is
     A.    chlamydia
     B.    gonorrhea
     C.    herpes
     D.    syphilis

198.    Sabrina has thought about entering the field of medicine for several years.  she went through a period of crisis before settling on this occupation.  According to Marcia, what is her identity status?
     A.    identity achievement
     B.    foreclosure
     C.    identity diffusion
     D.    moratorium

199.    Who described immature thinking patterns in adolescence?
     A.    Piaget
     B.    Elkind
     C.    Kohlberg
     D.    Freud

200.    What percent of people in the United States disapprove of extramarital sexual relationships?
     A.    64
     B.    74
     C.    84
     D.    94

201.    Marital satisfaction typically _________ during the childrearing years.
     A.    increases
     B.    decreases
     C.    stays about the same
     D.    none of the above

202.    Levinson proposed all but which of the following?
     A.    There are seven overlapping eras of development.
     B.    Eras of life are connected by transitional periods.
     C.    Most life structures are built primarily around work and family.
     D.    Failure to accomplish the tasks of one era may weaken the structure of the next.

203.    AIDS is spread in all of the following ways except
     A.    contact with bodily fluids
     B.    transfusions of infected blood
     C.    using contaminated needles
     D.    breathing contaminated air

204.    A good high school has all of the following except
     A.    an orderly, unoppressive atmosphere
     B.    an active energetic principal
     C.    the latest high-tech teaching equipment
     D.    teachers who take part in making decisions

205.    Dr. Dunn says that she supports Erik Erikson's model of development which assumes that people pass through a universal sequence of age-related social and emotional changes during the life span.  According to the text, Dr. Dunn supports the __________ model.
     A.    idiosyncratic stage theory
     B.    normative-sequential
     C.    normative-crisis
     D.    nomothetic-longitudinal

206.    Moral exemplars organize their lives around _______________ stories or "script."
     A.    generativity
     B.    commitment
     C.    conflict
     D.    idealistic

207.    Which of the following would not be a dimension of psychologically healthy people according to Ryff?
     A.    Positive attitudes toward themselves and others
     B.    Able to make their own decisions and regulate their own behavior
     C.    Are dependent on others for fulfillment
     D.    Have goals that made their lives meaningful

208.    A survey of where teenagers spend their waking hours showed that the greatest amount of time was spent with
     A.    one or both parents
     B.    friends and classmates
     C.    teachers
     D.    siblings

209.    Formal sex education programs typically cover all but which of the following topics?
     A.    birth control methods
     B.    sexually transmitted diseases
     C.    safe sex to prevent HIV infection
     D.    all of the above are covered

210.    Offer attributed the surprising unity of adolescent experiences across cultures largely to the influence of _______________, which gives young people a "collective consciousness" of what is going on in one another's lives all over the world?
     A.    cable TV
     B.    internet
     C.    the media
     D.    movies

211.    Margo, who is in her early twenties, is about to marry.  If current literature is correct, when might she expect the most stress and unhappiness in her marriage?
     A.    As a newlywed
     B.    During the child-rearing years
     C.    After the children leave home
     D.    In late adulthood

212.    Melinda, who is in her mid-forties, owns a successful computer company.  Recently, she has taken on a 14-year-old high school girl as an intern in order to "show her the ropes" of running a business.  According to Erikson, Melinda is demonstrating
     A.    altruism
     B.    generativity
     C.    intimacy
     D.    industry

213.    Alicia is an adolescent who tends to be shy and introverted, lacks poise, and feels unhappy about having menstrual periods.  According to the text, Alicia is probably
     A.    sexually active
     B.    underweight
     C.    an early-maturing girl
     D.    a late-developing girl

214.    Whitbourne concluded that a person customarily reaches identity equilibrium on the basis of their identity style.  Which of the following is not a typical identity style?
     A.    Assimilative
     B.    Accommodative
     C.    Comprehensive
     D.    Balanced

Last modified: 25 Nov 03

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