Study Guide for Chapters 17 & 18


1.   Most older Americans live
     A.    with a spouse, children, or other relatives
     B.    with nonrelatives
     C.    alone
     D.    in institutions

2.   Which of the following disorders cannot be effectively cured or reversed?
     A.    Alzheimer's disease
     B.    depression
     C.    toxicity due to overmedication
     D.    all of the above are irreversible

3.   Even though you haven't played tennis in years, you pick up a racquet and go out and play a pretty decent game. Your memory of how to play tennis is considered _______________ memory.
     A.    semantic
     B.    primary
     C.    procedural
     D.    working

4.   According to the research of Carstensen, what is "the most reliable finding in social gerontology"?
     A.    Older people become less accepting of the deaths of friends and family.
     B.    Older people prefer to disengage from active work roles.
     C.    Older people tend to reduce their social contacts.
     D.    Older people wish they could relive their lives.

5.   Recent research concerning the maximum human life span suggests that
     A.    110 years appears to be an absolute limit
     B.    environmental toxins are slowly lowering the maximum age that people can achieve
     C.    there is no preset limit on the life span
     D.    increasing one's caloric intake may greatly extend the life span

6.   Glenda, who is 74 years old, never married nor had children. Which kind of relationship is probably least important to her?
     A.    her relationship with aunts
     B.    her relationship with siblings
     C.    her relationship with similarly-aged men
     D.    her relationship with people young enough to be her children

7.   In addition to the antidepressant drug Prozac, what is a common procedure used in the treatment of depression?
     A.    psychotherapy
     B.    shock therapy
     C.    interpersonal therapy
     D.    behavioral therapy

8.   Retirement is most likely to cause problems when
     A.    the wife retires and the husband is still working
     B.    the husband retires and the wife is still working
     C.    the husband is younger than the wife
     D.    none of the above; retirement generally improves a marriage

9.   According to Atchley's continuity theory, which pattern of development in later life is most desirable?
     A.    Older people need to ignore the past and only look forward in life.
     B.    Older people should strive to change their external structures but keep their internal structures unchanged.
     C.    Older people should welcome some change, but maintain links with the past.
     D.    Older people should try to experience as little change as possible in order to maximize contentment.

10.  During the last several years, Blake, who is now 87 years old, has experienced a decline in his hearing and vision. He also has increasing difficulty walking up stairs and lifting things. According to the text, Blake is in the _______________ period of life.
     A.    geriatric
     B.    foreclosed
     C.    primary deterioration
     D.    senescent

11.  Dilbert has had trouble getting into his apartment building because the steps are too steep. He makes several complaints to the owner of the building until finally the owner installs a ramp, making entry easier. which style of coping
did Dilbert employ?
     A.    congruence
     B.    emotion-focused
     C.    palliative
     D.    problem-focused

12.  The leading cause of death among persons over age 65 in the United States is
     A.    heart disease
     B.    cancer
     C.    strokes
     D.    diabetes

13.  Which of the following is not a widespread stereotype of the aged?
     A.    They are usually tired, poorly coordinated, and prone to infections and accidents.
     B.    Most of them live in institutions.
     C.    They enjoy being older.
     D.    They can neither remember nor learn.

14.  More than half of people over ______________ develop cataracts, cloudy or opaque areas in the lens of the eye that causes blurred vision.
     A.    50
     B.    55
     C.    60
     D.    65

15.  Plasticity is
     A.    another name for terminal drop
     B.    how well test-takers adapt to different kinds of questions, such as verbal and mathematical items
     C.    how well test-takers can shift between applications of fluid and crystallized intelligence
     D.    variability, or modifiability, of a person's test performance

16.  Many older people in the United States are poor for the first time in their lives, for all but which of the following reasons?
     A.    They are unable to work.
     B.    Inflation has eroded their savings and pensions.
     C.    Those who are infirmed and disabled often have outlived their savings and have soaring medical bills.
     D.    Only about 10 percent of older Americans now qualify for social security benefits.

17.  Generalizing from research described in the text, an older adult is likely to experience the greatest distress when _____________ dies.
     A.    a sister
     B.    an aunt
     C.    a parent
     D.    a spouse

18.  Research on the gifted children from the Terman study that began in 1921 has found that high levels of _______________ is associated with a longer life.
     A.    neuroticism
     B.    openness
     C.    conscientiousness
     D.    optimism

19.  In comparison with younger people, older people have often been portrayed by the media as being ________________, though that is improving.
     A.    more attractive
     B.    more intelligent
     C.    less competent
     D.    less dependable

20.  Mr. Jones, who is 74 years old, complains to his doctor that he does not feel rested when he gets out of bed in the morning. Generalizing from the text, which of the following is a likely reason for his fatigue?
     A.    He has more frequent and vivid dreams.
     B.    He spends too much time in the deep stages of sleep.
     C.    He awakens more easily because of physical problems.
     D.    He spends too many hours each day asleep rather than getting sufficient exercise.

21.  Current views on intelligence in later life includes which of the following?
     A.    Fluid intelligence increases with increasing age.
     B.    Crystallized intelligence decreases with increasing age.
     C.    The elderly may acquire new abilities, such as wisdom.
     D.    all of the above

22.  Bernice, age 69, has gradually developed disturbing symptoms. She forgets where she lives, goes on extravagant spending binges, fails to recognize her children, and has difficulty feeding herself. She is likely to be suffering from
     A.    strokes
     B.    Alzheimer's disease
     C.    Parkinson's disease
     D.    overmedication

23.  In 1997, about __________ percent of Americans age 65 or older lived in their own home in the local community.
     A.    80
     B.    85
     C.    90
     D.    95

24.  Statistically, which of the following groups of Americans is most likely to be poor in late adulthood?
     A.    white men
     B.    black women
     C.    married couples
     D.    skilled workers

25.  According to functional age classification, the "young old" are
     A.    people between ages 60 and 70
     B.    a minority of older people
     C.    middle-aged people who are frail or infirm and see themselves as old
     D.    elderly people who are vital, vigorous, and active

26.  According to Erikson, persons in late adulthood are in the crisis of
     A.    Ego integrity versus despair
     B.    identity versus identity confusion
     C.    generativity versus stagnation
     D.    intimacy versus isolation

27.  Close friends and family members upon whom older people can rely for social support and well-being are called
     A.    integrated associates
     B.    inner-circles
     C.    primary supports
     D.    social convoys

28.  If you recall something you read in the newspaper several days ago, you are using which kind of memory?
     A.    sensory
     B.    short-term
     C.    long-term
     D.    Meta

29.  In a recent study of ways in which older people cope with stressful events, the three most frequently reported coping strategies included all but which of the following?
     A.    keeping busy
     B.    accepting situations that cannot be changed
     C.    outward expression of anger and frustration
     D.    religious faith

30.  According to gerontologists, individuals who are counted among the "oldest old" are at least _______________ years old.
     A.    75
     B.    65
     C.    85
     D.    95

31.  Your psychology professor states that women born today in Nepal will usually live to be only about 53 years old. Your professor is describing the _______________ of Nepalee women.
     A.    longevity
     B.    functional age
     C.    life expectancy
     D.    all of the above

32.  Which of the following is not one of the choices about working available to older adults?
     A.    early retirement
     B.    retiring from one career to start another
     C.    working part time
     D.    they all are choices

33.  Your roommate tells you to take care of your body and don't subject it to stress because it will make you age faster. Your roommate's advice is consistent with the _______________ theory of aging.
     A.    wear-and-tear
     B.    programmed-aging
     C.    expectancy
     D.    senescence-related

34.  During old age, the brain may lose some of the weight or function of _____________; and at the same time increase the resprouting of ______________.
     A.    neurons; dendrites
     B.    neurons; neurons
     C.    dendrites; neurons
     D.    dendrites; dendrites

35.  During the 1990s, the number of people 100 years of age and older doubled to _______________ thousand.
     A.    40
     B.    50
     C.    60
     D.    70

36.  According to a study cited in the text, the most powerful predictor of satisfaction in retirement was the size of a retiree's
     A.    bank account
     B.    house
     C.    social support network
     D.    active involvement in work

37.  By the year 2030, about what percentage of Americans will be 65 and older?
     A.    5 percent
     B.    20 percent
     C.    35 percent
     D.    10 percent

38.  According to the text, elder abuse is a type of
     A.    neglect
     B.    physical abuse
     C.    emotional abuse
     D.    domestic violence

39.  Alexander has not played golf for 25 years. Nevertheless, when he is asked to play golf in a fundraising event, he remembers how to perform all of the skills necessary to play golf such as the grip, the backswing, and the follow through. Alexander's knowledge of how to play golf represents what kind of memory?
     A.    sensory
     B.    procedural
     C.    non-distinctive
     D.    iconic

40.  Mike is a 66-year-old employee in a telemarketing firm. Which of the following medical conditions is more likely to cause Mike to miss work than it would a younger employee?
     A.    digestive problems
     B.    colds
     C.    flu infection
     D.    arthritis

41.  What percent of middle-aged adults, 45 to 59 years old, say they have saved too little or nothing at all for retirement?
     A.    20
     B.    30
     C.    40
     D.    50

42.  Which of the following statements about older women is false?
     A.    They are more likely than older men to be poor.
     B.    They are more likely than older men to die of short-term, fatal illnesses.
     C.    They are more likely than older men to live in nursing homes.
     D.    They are more likely than older men to need help dressing and bathing.

43.  Which of the following formats would probably be best for elderly students?
     A.    fast-paced lectures
     B.    concentrated coverage of material, without breaks
     C.    self-paced programmed learning aids
     D.    any of the above; older learners need no special materials or methods

44.  According to research cited in the text, couples who are still together in late adulthood
     A.    are more likely than young couples to find their marriages satisfying
     B.    are more likely than middle-aged couples to find their marriage satisfying
     C.    both a and b
     D.    neither a nor b

45.  An important difference between primary and secondary aging is that primary aging
     A.    is unavoidable
     B.    is more apparent
     C.    begins later in life
     D.    is caused by stress

46.  Dementia is
     A.    an inevitable part of aging
     B.    almost always irreversible
     C.    sometimes physiologically caused
     D.    to be suspected at the first signs of memory loss

47.  Primarily because of the social security system, retirement at age _____ eventually became almost universal.
     A.    55
     B.    60
     C.    65
     D.    70

48.  Ellen, who is recently retired from her job as a nurse, now devotes most of her time to making furniture, something she has always wanted to do. Ellen is exhibiting a ________________ retirement lifestyle.
     A.    family-focused
     B.    balanced investment
     C.    serious leisure
     D.    delay of gratification

49.  Educational programs designed specifically for mature adults is an example of _______________: organized, sustained study by adults of all ages.
     A.    continuing education
     B.    education for all
     C.    never too old to learn
     D.    lifelong learning

50.  Older Americans who live alone tend to
     A.    be younger than other elderly people
     B.    be more affluent than other elderly people
     C.    be men
     D.    prefer being on their own and value their independence

51.  According to research cited in the text, which of the following Americans is most likely to show a strong correlation between religious activity and well being?
     A.    African American woman, age 85
     B.    African American man, age 60
     C.    White woman, age 70
     D.    White man, age 75

52.  Gertrude, age 80, finds that she no longer enjoys her food. This is probably because
     A.    she is getting picky
     B.    her taste buds have lost their outer covering, and so flavors are too strong
     C.    her olfactory bulb has become less efficient
     D.    all of the above

53.  Cicely, after retiring from teaching school, rechanneled her energy into serving on the boards of directors of a senior center and a historical foundation. she also volunteered for "meals on wheels." Which theory of successful aging does she appear to be following?
     A.    activity
     B.    disengagement
     C.    compensation
     D.    integrity

54.  Which living arrangement is most desired by the majority of elderly Americans?
     A.    congregate housing
     B.    retirement community
     C.    assisted-living facility
     D.    aging in place

55.  All of the following features would be desirable in a nursing home except
     A.    privacy for social activity
     B.    hospital-like atmosphere
     C.    opportunities for socialization
     D.    full range of social and therapeutic services

56.  By the age of _________, the ratio of women to men is about 2 to 1.
     A.    60
     B.    70
     C.    80
     D.    90

57.  In the Grant Study, an important factor in predicting emotional health at age 65 was
     A.    happy marriage
     B.    successful career
     C.    stable home during childhood
     D.    closeness to siblings while in college

58.  Which coping strategy is the most commonly used by older adults when dealing with traumatic events?
     A.    keeping busy
     B.    accepting it
     C.    religion
     D.    support from family and friends

59.  Dorothy, age 65, is beginning to have trouble driving at night. This is probably because
     A.    her eyes can no longer adapt as well to dim light
     B.    the muscles that move the eyes do not function well
     C.    she falls asleep more easily
     D.    she is more easily distracted at night

60.  What percent of U.S. men and women 65 years of age and older have never married?
     A.    2
     B.    4
     C.    6
     D.    8

61.  Which of the following terms is used for the theory that bodies age in accordance with a normal developmental pattern built into every organism?
     A.    genetic-programming
     B.    wear-and-tear
     C.    primary-aging
     D.    secondary-aging

62.  With regard to health and the limitation of activities in old age, which of the following statements is most accurate?
     A.    The majority of people over age 65 report that they have to limit their activities for health reasons.
     B.    Very few people over age 85 who are not in institutions are healthy enough to take care of their personal needs without help.
     C.    When a condition is not severe, it can be managed so that it does not interfere with daily life.
     D.    All of the above.

63.  Ageism is
     A.    prejudice or discrimination, usually against young people
     B.    prejudice or discrimination against older person
     C.    negated by studies showing that older adults are more competent than younger adults
     D.    especially prevalent in Japan

64.  The greatest positive effect on older people's well-being is their relationship with
     A.    spouse
     B.    friends
     C.    family
     D.    siblings

65.  In the United States, which of the following has the longest life expectancy?
     A.    black woman
     B.    black man
     C.    white woman
     D.    white man

66.  A baby born in the United States in the year 2000 could expect to live about ______________ years longer than a baby born in the year 1900.
     A.    20
     B.    25
     C.    30
     D.    35

67.  Symptoms of depression mentioned in the text among the elderly include all but which of the following?
     A.    loss of weight
     B.    having lost close family and friends
     C.    taking mood-altering medicines
     D.    feeling they have little control over their lives

68.  Dave, age 78, has reduced his social commitments, is slowing down, and is focusing on his own needs. He is aging successfully, according to _______________ theory.
     A.    integrity
     B.    compensation
     C.    activity
     D.    disengagement

69.  In Asian countries such as Japan, longevity is __________ and fertility is __________.
     A.    decreasing; increasing
     B.    increasing; increasing
     C.    decreasing; decreasing
     D.    increasing; decreasing

70.  Which of the following is true about the use of emotion-focused coping in adulthood?
     A.    Older adults use it more often than younger adults.
     B.    Older adults gradually become unable to use this coping strategy.
     C.    Older and younger adults use this strategy equally often.
     D.    Younger adults tend to use it in non-emotional situations.

71.  Due to the inadequacies in government and private insurance, patients and their families typically pay about _________ percent of the cost of nursing home care.
     A.    25
     B.    15
     C.    33
     D.    55

72.  When 80-year-old Monty is asked about his life, he states that he knows he has lived life as well as he could, and that he loves his deceased parents despite all their faults. According to Erikson, Monty seems to have the virtue of
     A.    hope
     B.    wisdom
     C.    trust
     D.    integrity

73.  Neglect or physical or psychological abuse of dependent older persons is
     A.    much more common in poor families
     B.    reported much more frequently
     C.    most likely to be committed by a caregiver-spouse
     D.    all of the above

74.  Which of the following is not one of the reasons for the rapid increase in the older American population?
     A.    high birth and immigration rates during the early to middle part of the 20th century
     B.    great progress in medical knowledge
     C.    advances in genetics
     D.    trend toward healthier lifestyles

75.  According to Carstensen's socioemotional selectivity theory, which is the most important psychological function of social interaction in old age?
     A.    information seeking
     B.    emotional support
     C.    breaking-up social convoys
     D.    increasing novelty

76.  According to research, which of the following statements about friendships in old age is true?
     A.    Friends are important because they are chosen by the person.
     B.    Friends are less important to women than to men.
     C.    Time spent with friends results in higher overall life satisfaction than time spent with a spouse.
     D.    Friends provide immediate enjoyment but rarely provide long-term emotional support.

77.  Which of the following does not seem to be a reason why older drivers have a disproportionate share of traffic accidents, most of which relate to vision problems.
     A.    Improper turns
     B.    Sign violations
     C.    Speeding
     D.    Failure to yield the right of way

78.  Which of the following is not a normal physical change associated with aging?
     A.    sleeping less
     B.    paler, less elastic skin
     C.    obesity
     D.    higher blood pressure

79.  What proportion of older Americans receive social security benefits?
     A.    6 out of 10
     B.    7 out of 10
     C.    8 out of 10
     D.    9 out of 10

80.  According to the dual-process model of intellectual function in late adulthood, which aspect of intelligence is presumed to decline in the elderly?
     A.    mechanics of intelligence
     B.    wisdom
     C.    pragmatics of intelligence
     D.    crystallized intelligence

81.  Older adults often show the most noticeable decline in _______________ memory ability.
     A.    episodic
     B.    primary
     C.    semantic
     D.    implicit

82.  The virtue gained during Erikson's final stage is
     A.    hope
     B.    trust
     C.    love
     D.    wisdom

83.  Research on elderly childless people suggests that
     A.    childless widows sometimes regret not having children
     B.    nonparents are far more likely than parents to be institutionalized in old age
     C.    nonparents tend to go to friends or neighbors when they need help
     D.    all of the above

84.  According to the Grant Study, social support during the previous 20 years was a powerful predictor of physical health at
     A.    50
     B.    60
     C.    70
     D.    80

85.  The only personality trait shared by the centenarians in the Massachusetts' study was that they
     A.    abstained from eating red meat
     B.    managed stress well
     C.    exercised strenuously
     D.    had their babies when they were young

86.  Which of the following statements about older workers is false?
     A.    They have more experience than younger workers.
     B.    They are absent from work less than younger workers.
     C.    They work at a faster rate than younger workers.
     D.    They are more loyal than younger workers.

87.  What proportion of older adults who need a hearing aid has one?
     A.    one in five
     B.    two in five
     C.    three in five
     D.    four in five

88.  Knowledge about how one's own memory works is called
     A.    implicit memory
     B.    primary memory
     C.    metamemory
     D.    protomemory

89.  Research suggests that each of the following is an important factor in successful marriage in late adulthood except
     A.    being affluent
     B.    intimacy
     C.    common interests, values, and philosophies
     D.    a sense of belonging to each other

90.  The difference between individuals in the Seattle Longitudinal Study of Adult Intelligence were attributed to all but which of the following?
     A.    Their genetic endowment
     B.    Their physical and neurological status
     C.    They had stable marriages, intelligent spouses, and cognitively complex occupations
     D.    They had rigid personality styles

91.  According to a recent poll, what percent of men and women ages 50 to 75 were continuing to work in retirement or were planning to do so?
     A.    20
     B.    30
     C.    40
     D.    50

92.  With whom do older adults seem to be the most emotionally aroused and alert?
     A.    with their spouse
     B.    with friends
     C.    with their children
     D.    with co-workers

93.  Which kind of aging is most strongly influenced by diet and exercise?
     A.    secondary aging
     B.    primary aging
     C.    process aging
     D.    programmed aging

94.  What percentage of the 1.5 million nursing home residents are women, mostly widows in their eighties?
     A.    25
     B.    50
     C.    75
     D.    100

95.  Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to making older adults susceptible to falls?
     A.    slower reflexes
     B.    decreased muscle strength
     C.    carelessness
     D.    loss of eyesight and depth perception

96.  Although Medicaid covers nearly half of nursing home expenses, it is available only to older adults who
     A.    have Medicare
     B.    have exhausted virtually all of their own resources
     C.    have been admitted to an approved nursing home
     D.    all of the above

97.  Generalizing from the text, which of the following men would be most likely to retire early?
     A.    a white male with a high school education
     B.    an African American male with a high school education
     C.    a self-employed white male
     D.    an African American physician

98.  Which of the following is the most crucial lifestyle decision people make as they approach late adulthood?
     A.    where to live
     B.    whether and when to retire
     C.    when to give up driving
     D.    what to do with leisure time

99.  Because women live longer than men, and are more likely to be widowed, older women are at least __________ times as likely as older men to live alone.
     A.    two
     B.    three
     C.    four
     D.    five

100. Which of the following statements about treatment of Alzheimer's disease is true?
     A.    It can be cured if detected early enough.
     B.    It can be cured even if detected quite late.
     C.    No cure has been discovered for it.
     D.    Though it is not curable, the standard treatment to halt its progress involves grafts of fetal brain tissue.

101. What was the primary conclusion of a Congressional study of the performance of older workers?
     A.    After age 60, how old someone is strongly predicts competence on the job.
     B.    Specific tests of cognitive and physical abilities predict job performance better than age.
     C.    Older workers get more competent after age 65.
     D.    Male workers retain their competence in old age better than female workers.

102. Which of the following statements about reserve capacity in old age is true?
     A.    It tends to increase.
     B.    It declines, and the effects are most noticeable in everyday activities.
     C.    It declines, and the effects are most noticeable when old people are faced with stressful demands.
     D.    It remains the same.

103. During late adulthood, physical exercise
     A.    should be avoided to reduce the risk of injury
     B.    is less valuable than it is at earlier stages of the life span
     C.    has no effect on muscle strength at this stage
     D.    can minimize physical, cognitive, and psychological declines

104. Inferring from the text, which of these elderly people would be most likely to have poor health?
     A.    white American
     B.    African American
     C.    Hispanic American
     D.    all of the above

Last modified: 25 Nov 03

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